Hughes, Secrets of the Times

| Updated: Sat, 26 Dec 2009 | Tagged:

Hughes cover pic

Jeremy Hughes, Secrets of the Times: Myth and History in Biblical Chronology. JSOTSS, 66; Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1990 [reprinted: LHBOT; London: Continuum, 2009].

Tables

1. Priestly chronology, from the creation to the founding of the second temple
1.1 From Adam to the Flood
1.2 From the flood to Terah (father of Abraham)
1.3 The Hebrew Patriarchs
2. Deuteronomistic chronology from the settlement in Canaan to the Babylonian exile
2.1 The period of the judges
2.2 David and Solomon
2.3 Kings of Judah from Rehoboam to Jehoshaphat
2.4 Kings of Judah from Jehoram to Zedekiah
3. Chronological data in Josephus  
3.1 From the Exodus to the foundation of the temple
3.2 Judaean kings from David’s accession to the Babylonian exile
3.3 Israelite kings from the schism to the fall of Samaria
4. Mesopotamian chronology  
4.1 Kings of Assyria
4.2 Kings of Babylon
4.3 Kings of Persia
5. Israelite-Judaean Chronology  
5.1 Kings of Israel
5.2 Kings of Judah
6. Names of the Months  

Reviews

The argument of the book is that biblical chronology is schematic not only in the priestly chronology of the world but also in the deuteronomistic chronology of Israel, including the reigns of the kings of Israel and Judah in the Books of Kings. … Although the title may give the impression that the study’s principal focus is the symbolic or mythical character of biblical chronology and indeed this may have been the author’s original intention, the recovery of the actual chronology of the kings receives at least equal attention.

1. Priestly chronology, from the creation to the founding of the second temple

1.1 From Adam to the Flood

Genesis Name MT LXX SP Priestly Notes
5.3 Adam 130 230 130 130
5.6 Seth 105 205 105 105
5.9 Enosh 90 190 90 90
5.12 Kenan 70 170 70 70
5.15 Mahalalel 65 165 65 65
5.18 Jared 162 162 62 62
5.21 Enoch 65 165 65 65
5.25 Methuselah 187 167 67 69
5.28 Lamech 182 188 53 53
5.32 Noah 500 500 500 500 not included in total
7.6,9.28 (age at flood) 600 600 600 600
11.10 Shem 100 100 100 100 not included in total
Totals 1656 2242 1307 1309

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1.2 From the flood to Terah (father of Abraham)

Genesis Name MT LXX SP Priestly
11.10 flood to Arpachshad 2 2 2
11.12 Arpachshad 35 135 135 35
11.13 Kenan 130
11.14 Shelah 30 130 130 30
11.16 Eber 34 134 134 34
11.18 Peleg 30 130 130 30
11.20 Reu 32 132 132 32
11.22 Serug 30 130 130 30
11.24 Nahor 29 79 79 29
11.26 Terah 70 70 70 70
Total 290/292 1070/1072 940/942 290

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1.3 The Hebrew Patriarchs

Genesis Name MT LXX SP Priestly Notes
21.5 Abraham 100 100 100 100
25.26 Isaac 60 60 60 60
47.9 Jacob’s age on entering Egypt 130 130 130 130
Total 290 290 290 290
12.40 Israel in Egypt 430 215 215 430
Israel in Canaan 215 215
1 Kings 6.1 Exodus to first temple 480 440 480
First temple period 430 430/435 430 not included in total
Exile 50 not included in total

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2. Deuteronomistic chronology from the settlement in Canaan to the Babylonian exile

2.1 The period of the judges

Judges Name or Event MT LXX Josephus Deuteronomy
3.8 Mesopotamian oppression 8 8 8 7
3.11 Tranquility 40 50 40 40
3.14 Moabite oppression 18 18 18 18
3.30 Tranquility 80 80 81 80
4.3 Canaanite oppression 20 20 20 20
5.31 Tranquility 40 40 40 40
6.1 Midianite oppression 7 7 7 7
8.28 Tranquility 40 40 40 40
9.22 Abimelech 3 3 3 3
10.2 Tola 23 23 23
10.3 Jair 22 22 22 22
10.8 Ammonite oppression 18 18 18 18
12.7 Jephthah 6 6 6 7
12.9 Ibzan 7 7 7 7
12.11 Elon 10 10 10
12.14 Abdon 8 8 8
13.1 Philistine oppression 40 40 40 40
15.20,16.31 Samson 20 20 20 20
1 Sam. 4.18 Eli 40 20 40 40
1 Sam. 7.15 Samuel 30 (not included in total) 30
Total 450 430 450 480

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2.2 David and Solomon

1 Kings Name MT LXX Josephus Deuteronomy
2.11 David 40 40 40 40
11.42 Solomon 40 40 80 40

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2.3 Kings of Judah from Rehoboam to Jehoshaphat

1 Kings Name MT LXX Josephus Deuteronomy
12.24 Rehoboam 12
14.21 Rehoboam 17 17 17 17
15.2 Abijam 3 6 3 6
15.10 Asa 41 41 41 41
22.42 Jehoshaphat 25 25 25 25

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2.4 Kings of Judah from Jehoram to Zedekiah

2 Kings Name MT LXX Josephus Deuteronomy
8.17 Jehoram 8 10 8 11
8.26 Ahaziah 1 1 1 1
11.4 Athaliah (queen) 7 7 7 7
12.2 Joash 40 40 40 40
14.2 Amaziah 29 29 29 29
15.2 Uzziah 52 52 52 52
15.33 Jotham 16 16 16 16
16.2 Ahaz 16 16 16 16
18.2 Hezekiah 29 29 29 29
21.1 Manasseh 55 55 55 55
21.19 Amon 2 2 2 2
22.1 Josiah 31 31 31 31
23.31 Jehoahaz 3 months 3 months 3 months 3 months
23.36 Jehoiakim 11 11 11 11
24.8 Jehoiachin 3 months 3 months 3 months 3 months
24.18 Zedekiah 11 11 11 11
Total 474 474/479 514 480

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3. Chronological data in Josephus

3.1 From the Exodus to the foundation of the temple

Antiquities Name Years Notes
4.176,327 Moses 40
5.117 Joshua 25
6.84 (anarchy) 18
5.181 Mesopotamian oppression 8
5.184 Kenaz 40
5.187 Moabite oppression 18
5.197 Ehud 80
5.197 Shamgar 1
5.200 Canaanite oppression 20
5.209 Barak 40
5.211 Midianite oppression 7
5.232 Gideon 40
5.239 Abimelech 3
5.254 Jair 22
5.263 Ammonite oppression 18
5.270 Jephthah 6
5.271 Ibzan 7
5.272 Elon 10
5.273-4 Abdon
5.275 Philistine oppression 40
5.316 Samson 20
5.359 Eli 40
6.294 Samuel (sole rule) 12
6.294,378 Samuel and Saul 18
6.378 Saul (sole rule) 22
10.143 Saul 20 not included in total
7.65,389 David in Hebron 7 years 6 months
7.389 David in Jerusalem 33
8.61 Solomon before the temple 4
Total 591 years 6 months

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3.2 Judaean kings from David’s accession to the Babylonian exile

Antiquities Name Synchronisms Years
7.389 David in Hebron 7 years 6 months
7.389 David in Jerusalem 33
8.211 Solomon 80
8.264 Rehoboam 17
8.264,285 Abijam Jeroboam 18 3
8.314 Asa 41
9.44 Jehoshaphat 25
9.104 Jehoram 8
9.121 Ahaziah 1
9.143 Athaliah (queen) 7
9.142f,272 Joash 40
9.186,204 Amaziah Jehoash 2 29
9.216,227 Uzziah Jeroboam 14 52
9.243 Jotham 16
9.257 Ahaz 16
9.260,10.36 Hezekiah Hoshea 4 29
10.46 Manasseh 55
10.47 Amon 2
10.77 Josiah 31
10.83 Jehoahaz 3 months
10.98 Jehoiakim 11
10.98 Jehoiachin 3 months
10.135 Zedekiah 11
Total 515

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3.3 Israelite kings from the schism to the fall of Samaria

Antiquities Name Synchronism Years
8.287 Jeroboam 22
8.287 Nadab Asa 2 2
8.299 Baasha 24
8.307 Elah 2
8.311 Zimri 7 days
8.312 Omri Asa 30 12
8.316 Ahab 22
9.19 Ahaziah 2
9.27 Joram 12
9.160 Jehu 27
9.173 Jehoahaz Joash 21 17
9.177 Jehoash Joash 37 16
9.205,215 Jeroboam Amaziah 15 40
9.228 Zechariah 6 month
9.228 Shallum 1 month
9.232 Menahem 10
9.233 Pekahiah 2
9.234 Pekah 20
9.258 Hoshea 9
9.277 Samaria was besieged Hoshea 7
9.278 Samaria fell Hoshea 9 = Hezekiah 7
Total 239 years 7 months 239 years 7 months

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4. Mesopotamian chronology

4.1 Kings of Assyria

Name Years From (BC) To (BC)
Adadnirari II 21 912 891
Tukultinimurta II 7 891 884
Ashurnasirpal II 25 884 859
Shalmaneser III 35 859 824
Shamshi-adad V 13 824 811
Adadnirari III 28 811 783
Shalmaneser IV 10 783 773
Ashurdan III 18 773 755
Ashurnirari V 10 755 745
Tiglathpileser III 18 745 727
Shalmaneser V 5 727 722
Sargon II 17 722 705
Sennacherib 24 705 681
Esarhaddon 12 681 669
Ashurbanipal 42 669 627

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4.2 Kings of Babylon

Name Years From (BC) To (BC)
Nabonassar 14 748 734
Nabunadinzeri 2 734 732
Nabushumukin II 1 month 732
Nabuzukinzeri 3 732 729
Tiglathpileser 2 729 727
Shalmaneser 5 727 722
Merodachbaladan II 12 722 710
Sargon II 5 710 705
Sennacherib 2 705 703
Mardukzakirshumi II 1 month 703
Merodachbaladan II 9 months 703
Belibni 3 703 700
Ashurnadinshumi 6 700 694
Nergalushezib 1 694 693
Mushezibmarduk 4 693 689
Sennacherib 8 689 681
Esarhaddon 12 681 669
Ashurbanipal 1 669 668
Shamash-shumukin 20 668 648
Kandalanu 21 648 627
(inter-regnum) 1 627 626
Nabopolassar 21 626 605
Nebuchadrezzar II 43 605 562
Evil-merodach 2 562 560
Neriglissar 4 560 556
Labashi-marduk 3 months 556
Nabonidus 17 556 539

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4.3 Kings of Persia

Name Years From (BC) To (BC)
Cyrus II 9 539 530
Cambyses II 8 530 522
Bardiya 6 months 522
Darius I 36 522 486
Xerxes I 21 486 465
Artaxerxes I 41 465 424
Xerxes II 1.5 months 424
Darius II 19 424 405
Artaxerxes II 46 405 359
Artaxerxes III 21 359 338
Arses 2 338 336
Darius III 5 336 331

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5. Israelite-Judaean Chronology

5.1 Kings of Israel

Name Years From (BC) To (BC)
Jeroboam 25 or 22 937 913
Nadab 2 913 912
Baasha 24 912 889
Elah 2 889 888
Zimri 7 days 888
Omri 12 888 877
Ahab 24 or 22 877 854
Ahaziah 2 854 853
Joram 12 853 842
Jehu 27 (Josephus) 842 816
Jehoahaz 17 816 800
Jehoash 16 800 785
Jeroboam 41 785 745
Zechariah 6 months 745
Shallum 1 month 745
Menahem 10 745 736
Pekahiah 2 736 735
Pekah 4 or 20 735 732
Hioshea 9 732 724

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5.2 Kings of Judah

Name Years From (BC) To (BC)
Rehoboam 17 937 921
Abijam 6 921 916
Asa 41 916 876
Jehoshaphat 25 876 852
Jehoram 11 or 10 852 842
Ahaziah 1 842
Athaliah 7 842 836
Joash 38 or 40 836 799
Amaziah 28 or 29 799 772
Azariah 26 or 52 772 747
Jotham 11 or 16 747 737
Ahaz 16 737 722
Hezekiah 29 722 694
Manasseh 55 694 640
Amon 2 640 639
Josiah 31 639 609
Jehoahaz 3 months 609
Jehoiakim 11 609 598
Jehoiachin 3 months 598
Zedekiah 11 598 587

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6. Names of the Months

Number Babylonian Hebrew Canaanite From To
1 Nisanu Nisan Abib March April
2 Aiaru Iyyar Ziv April May
3 Simanu Sivan May June
4 Duzu Tammuz June July
5 Abu Ab July August
6 Ululu Elul August September
7 Tashritu Tishri Ethanim September October
8 Arashanu Marheshvan Bul October November
9 Kislimu Kislev November December
10 Tebetu Tebeth December January
11 Shabatu Shebat January February
12 Adaru Adar February March

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OT Chronologies